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Draft genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant Shewanella algae strain AC isolated from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor)

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
  • 2 Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA.
  • 3 Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA; Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
  • 4 Department of Nursing, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • PMID: 29933118
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2018.06.005

Draft genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant Shewanella algae strain AC isolated from small abalone (Haliotis diversicolor)

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Authors

Affiliations

  • 1 Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan.
  • 2 Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA.
  • 3 Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, CA, USA; Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.
  • 4 Department of Nursing, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; Rong Hsing Research Center for Translational Medicine, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • PMID: 29933118
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jgar.2018.06.005

Abstract

Objectives: Shewanella algae is an environmental marine bacterium and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Moreover, there are increasing reports of strains showing multidrug resistance, particularly carbapenem-resistant isolates. Although S. algae has been found in bivalve shellfish aquaculture, there is very little genome-wide data on resistance determinants in S. algae from shellfish. The aim of this study was to determine the whole genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone in Taiwan.

Methods: Bacterial genomic DNA was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform with 250-bp paired-end reads. De novo genome assembly was performed using Velvet v.1.2.07. The whole genome was annotated and several candidate genes for antimicrobial resistance were identified.

Results: The genome size was calculated at 4751156bp, with a mean G+C content of 53.09%. A total of 4164 protein-coding sequences, 7 rRNAs, 85 tRNAs and 5 non-coding RNAs were identified. The genome contains genes associated with resistance to β-lactams, trimethoprim, tetracycline, colistin and quinolones. Multiple efflux pump genes were also detected.

Conclusion: Small abalone is a potential source of foodborne drug-resistant S. algae. The genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone will provide valuable information for further study of the dissemination of resistance genes at the human-animal interface.

Keywords: Carbapenem resistance; Shewanella algae; Whole-genome sequencing.

Copyright © 2018 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. All rights reserved.

Small abalone is a potential source of foodborne drug-resistant S. algae. The genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone will provide valuable information for further study of the dissemination of resistance genes at the human-animal interface.

3B20 AC Strain Gage, Torque Transducer Input

Introduction

The 3B20 is a wideband single-channel signal-conditioning module which interfaces 4-arm AC bridge transducer signals ranging between 1.5 mV rms and 150 mV rms, providing simultaneous precision voltage and current outputs. In addition, the module provides an AC excitation voltage of 2 V rms to 10 V rms at frequencies between 1 kHz and 10 kHz. The module withstands 130 V rms at its current output terminals without damage, thereby shielding computer-side circuitry from field-side overvoltage conditions. The 3B20 is a plug-in, mix-and-match, hot-swappable module and is easily field calibrated via front-panel zero and span adjustments for both voltage and current outputs.

3B Series Custom-Ranging Program

Externally-programmable Model 3B20-00, enables the user to configure a special input range, including tare weight suppression, by using the optional plug-on AC1310 ranging card, which houses user-supplied resistors to determine zero and span. To facilitate selecting resistors, a Windows ® program, 3B-CUSTOM, calculates resistor values based on the user-desired input/output ranges.

Inside the 3B20 Series Module

The 3B20 input and AC bridge excitation output terminals are protected for up to 130 V rms. The excitation amplitude and frequency can be specified with the Model 3B20-CUSTOM or user configured with Model 3B20-00 and an optional plug-on Model AC1310 ranging card. Both the voltage and current outputs can be independently adjusted for a minimum of ±1 V for the zero and 25% of the span range with front-panel user-accessible potentiometers. In addition, phase shifts of up to 37.25° between excitation signal and the output signal from the strain gauge or torque transducer can be compensated via front-panel screw terminal adjustments.

Input and Output Ranges

Figure 1. 3B20 Functional Block Diagram

3B20 Models Available

Model Excitation
Voltage
Excitation
Frequency
Input Range Sensitivity Output
Ranges 1
Order Now 3B20-00 Externally
Programmable 2
Externally
Programmable 2
Externally
Programmable 2
Externally
Programmable 2
-10 V to +10 V &
0 mA to 20 mA
Order Now 3B20-01 5 V rms 3 kHz 20 mV rms 2 mV rms/V -10 V to +10 V &
0 mA to 20 mA
3B20-Custom * * * * *

1 Output current range may be user programmed to 4 mA to 20 mA using jumper supplied.
2 Requires AC1310 ranging card.
* Custom Input/Output ranges are available. Refer to configuration guide.

3B20 Specifications

(typical @ +25°C and ±15 V dc, and +24 V dc Power)

Description Model 3B20
Input Range
Standard Range Refer to Model Table
Custom Ranges Vin = 1.5 mV rms to 150 mV rms
Vexc = 2 V rms to 10 V rms
Vexc freq. = 1 kHz to 10 kHz
Output Range
Voltage (RL > 2 KΩ) -10 V to +10 V
Current (RL = 0 to 850Ω) 1 4 mA to 20 mA or 0 mA to 20 mA
With Input Overload 40 mA, maximum
Accuracy 2
Initial @ +25°C ±0.1% Span
Nonlinearity 2 ±0.05% Span
Stability vs. Temperature
Voltage Output
Zero ±0.005% of Span/°C
Span ±0.01% of Span/°C
Current Output 3
Zero ±25 ppm of Span/°C
Span ±25 ppm of Reading/°C
Bridge Excitation
Voltage 4 2 V rms to 10 V rms
Voltage, tolerance ±2.5%
Frequency 4 1 kHz to 10 kHz, ±15%
Drive Up to 20 mA rms, minimum
Harmonic Distortion 4 ±25% of span, minimum
Zero Calibration Adjustment Range 4 ±1 V, minimum
Phase Adjustment Range 5 0 to 4.25° minimum @ 1 kHz
0 to 14° minimum @ 3.28 kHz
0 to 37.25° minimum @ 10 kHz
Input Bias Current +10 nA
Input Resistance 100 MΩ
Bandwidth, -3 dB 100 Hz
Output Rise Time, 10% to 90% Span 200 ms
Input Protection, Signal and Excitation Voltage
Continuous 130 V rms maximum
Transient ANSI/IEEE C37.90.1-1989
Voltage Output Protection Continuous Short to Ground
Current Output Protection 130 V rms, continuous
Power Supply Voltages 5
±15 V dc Supplies
Rated Operation ±(13 V dc to 18 V dc)
Current ±65 mA
Sensitivity ±0.03% span/V
+24 V dc Loop Supply
Rated Operation +13.5 V dc to +30 V dc
Current +27 mA @ lout = 20 mA
Sensitivity ±0.001% span/V
Mechanical Dimensions 3.15″ x 3.395″ x 0.775″
(80.0 mm x 86.2 mm x 19.7 mm)
Environmental
Temperature Range
Rated Performance -25°C to +85°C
Storage -55°C to +85°C
Relative Humidity, 24 hours 0 to 95% @ +60°C noncondensing
RFI Susceptibility ±0.5% Span error @ 400 MHz, 5 Watt, 3 ft

1 For a 0 mA to 20 mA range, a typical minimum output current is 10 µA.
2 Includes the combined effects of repeatability, hysteresis, and nonlinearity.
3 With respect to the voltage output.
4 A wide range of custom zero suppression and span is available with the 3B20-00 model, using the AC1310 ranging card.
5 +24 V dc loop power is required for driving the current output at loads up to 850Ω. If a current output load of 400Ω or less is applied, +15 V dc is sufficient for loop power. If only voltage output is used, loop power is not required.

3B20 AC Strain Gage, Torque Transducer Input Introduction The 3B20 is a wideband single-channel signal-conditioning module which interfaces 4-arm AC bridge transducer signals ranging between