high terpene strains

10 Cannabis Strains & Terpene Profiles For Exercising

Many people associate cannabis with its commonly sedative, indica, “in-da-couch,” effects which leave users relaxed, sluggish, and yearning for snacks. However, due to specific terpene profiles, many cannabis strains can provide an energizing, boosting effect which is great for exercise, yoga, or simply a boost during that 3:00 pm lull of the day. For many, THC and terpenes can make exercising like running or lifting weights feel enjoyable and pleasurable like a good stretch, rather than strenuous, laboring work. There is very few better feelings than a runner’s high coincided with a THC high.

Terpenes have a profound effect on the body and can be taken in through other forms than simply smoking cannabis. Exercising in terpene rich environments, like forests and wooded areas, is shown to strengthen your heart and increase stamina to keep blood flowing and muscles moving. The most terpene-dense environments are those with taller trees, little sunlight penetration, lower temperatures, and a lot of vegetation. If you cannot get to a forested area easily, a city funded botanical garden or even private garden area filled with fragrant vegetation can serve as a suitable substitute and will do wonders for your mind, body, and spirit.

Terpenes like terpinolene, limonene, and beta-caryophyllene are brightening, energizing, anti-inflammatory terpenes that can energize you before a workout and relieve any inflammation and pain in joints and muscles, allowing for a much better workout.

10. Cannatonic
A CBD-rich strain, that does not leave you with the head high and is great strain to use after your workout. This will promote the relaxation of your muscles, relieve any pain that may have been caused by your routine and leave you feeling uplifted, great for those who workout before work or have plans after a rigorous gym session.

9. Durban Poison
This strain is basically pure sativa and is known for its sweet smell and the energetic, cerebral high it bestows its users. Durban Poison is the perfect strain to smoke for a productive day, so why not take a couple puffs before taking a trip to the gym or going on a hike with some friends? This terpinolene-heavy strain is great for those aiming to remain productive, awake, and energized.

8. Sour Diesel
One of the more classic strains of weed, and it also happens to be one of the perfect strains to improve your workout. Sour Diesel will give its users a euphoric, cerebral high, so it could be perfect for doing yoga, or any other exercise that requires the strength of mind above all else. Sour Diesel’s terpene profile is an all-star list of energizing terps including: b- Caryophyllene, d-Limonene, Myrcene, L-beta-Pinene, Linalool, L-alpha-Pinene, alpha-Terpineol, and Camphene .

7. Harlequin
Another sativa-dominant hybrid, but it boasts a much higher sativa to indica ratio than the other strains to improve your workout at 75/25 percent. Additionally, it contains a 5:2 ratio of CBD: THC, so you will feel a huge rush of energy, without getting too stoned. This strain might feel like a workout, rather than a strain of weed if you smoke just the right amount.

6. Orange Diesel
Orange Diesel is another sativa-dominant strain (see the pattern here?), and it is frequently used to treat ADD or ADHD in medicinal patients. If you have trouble focusing, or getting yourself to get through a workout, this could be the perfect strain for you. A couple of puffs of this, and you should find the energy within yourself to climb a mountain.

5. Super Lemon Haze
This sativa dominant strain blend is one the best strains to use when looking for the energy and motivation to go to the gym. It has a very potent dank smell, with an extremely fruity taste promises a robust high with a lemon undertone. The beta-caryophyllene in this strain, mixed with energizing pre-workout drink or caffeine, will have you running marathons.

4. Sweet Kush
This strain should be used by experienced cannabis smokers as it can leave the less experienced feeling a little lazier than uplifted at first but once you have the dose figured out, you should be able to take a toke of this and hit the gym. This strain is ideal for those who suffer from muscle spasms and joint pain; it allows them to get their routine in with having experienced the extreme pain that comes with the exercise or even after the exercise. This strain may be extremely beneficial when stretching or doing yoga, as the CBD-heavy, indica dominant hybrid will have you feeling each and every little bit of tension being released as your muscles stretch, contract, and relax.

3. Jack Herer
One of the most popular strains on the market and one of the best strains to improve your workout, as it gives its users an uplifting, euphoric effect. If you’re ever down on yourself and want to become more active, Jack Herer is the perfect strain to do just that. It should also provide you with enough energy to get through a workout, without much of a crash towards the end. The seemingly boundless benefits come from its terpene profile which goes deep, including Terpinolene, Limonene, Ocimene, beta-Caryophyllene, and beta-Pinene.

2. Grape Ape
Although this is an indica dominate strain, Grape Ape may help those with chronic pain be able to go to physical therapy, to stretch, do yoga, go on walks pain-free. Many heavy smokers find this to be a great uplifting strain that allows them to focus and be pain-free. Another great strain for a medical user looking to get a workout in and experience extreme pain as a result.

1. Green Crack
Another sativa-dominant hybrid strain, Green Crack invigorates its users with a sharp mental buzz and a huge uptick in energy. The name does not lie. This daytime strain is sure to keep you focused and energized for your entire workout and won’t make you crash at the end. Green Crack is a great daytime strain that may help consumers fight fatigue, stress, and depression.

There is also an indica-dominant variety of Green Crack that will give the user more of a relaxed, calm high, which could also serve well for mindfulness exercises such as yoga and tai-chi.

Exercise and movement is extremely important in combating diseases, boosting energy, mood, brain function, and overall well-being. Hopefully for many, THC and terpenes can aid those who are riddled with achy joints, chronic pain, or low energy. Try a few different exercises for each terpene profile and see what exercise pairs best with what workout for you!

Many people associate cannabis with its commonly sedative, indica, “in-da-couch,” effects which leave users relaxed, sluggish, and yearning for snacks. However, due to specific terpene profiles, many cannabis strains can provide an energizing, boosting effect which is great for exercise, yoga, or simply a boost during

Variations in Terpene Profiles of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa L

S. Casano, G. Grassi, V. Martini and M. Michelozzi (2011)
Variations in terpene profiles of different strains of Cannabis sativa L. Acta Horticulturae 925:115-121

The psychotropic effects of Cannabis, primarily due to the main psychotropic cannabinoid, Δ9-THC (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), have been intensely studied as pure compounds for medicinal activity. The pharmaceutical industry, however, is interested in the plant as a source of raw material and studying the variability and synergy among the various secondary metabolites. Other cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids may reduce Δ9-THC-induced anxiety, cholinergic deficit, and immunosuppression, while at the same time increase cerebral blood flow, enhance cortical activity, kill respiratory pathogens, and provide anti-inflammatory activity (McPartland and Russo, 2001). Terpenoids possess a broad range of biological properties, including cancer chemo preventive effects, skin penetration enhancement, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities (Paduch et al., 2007).

Plants exhibit dynamic biochemical changes when attacked by diseases and herbivores and in response to abiotic stresses, resulting in the induced production and release of aroma volatiles that are beneficial for direct or indirect defense. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Huang et al., 2010) and in Medicago truncatula (Navia-Ginè et al., 2009) a significant quantitative variation in the emission of the monoterpene trans-β-ocimene occurs as a consequence of the attack by herbivorous insects. Two monoterpenes generally present in the aroma volatiles of Cannabis, limonene and α-pinene, as well as other monoterpenes, have been shown to powerfully repel herbivorous insects (Nerio et al., 2010), while sesquiterpenes tend to be related to intake by grazing animals. Potter (2009) demonstrated that in Cannabis the monoterpene:sesquiterpene ratios in leaves and inflorescences are very different because of the dominant presence of sessile trichomes on foliage and of capitate stalked trichomes on floral material, with the most volatile monoterpenes dominating in inflorescences to repel insects and the most bitter sesquiterpenes dominating in leaves to act as antiherbivory for grazing animals. Being that pharmaceutical Cannabis is normally cultivated in facilities not accessible to grazing animals, the major pest problem remains herbivorous insects, especially the most common and destructive spider mites, thrips, and whiteflies, thus the analysis of monoterpenes and the study of their variability may play a strategic role into select plants less susceptible to the attack of these and other insects.

Terpenes are strongly inherited and little influenced by environmental factors and, therefore, have been widely used as biochemical marker in chemosystematic studies to characterize plant species, provenances, clones and hybrids. A wide variability in terpenoids content in different strains of Cannabis have been reported (Mediavilla and Steinemann, 1997; Novak et al., 2001; Hillig, 2004; Fischedick et al., 2010). The variability on secondary metabolism combined with genetic data has recently re-opened the old debate on its taxonomic treatment. In fact, Hillig (2005) proposed a polytypic concept which recognizes three species (Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis) and seven putative taxa, but at present the majority of researchers continue to agree on the monotypic treatment and identify the species as Cannabis sativa L. The differentiation of strains in ‘pure sativa’, ‘mostly sativa’, ‘sativa/indica hybrid’, ‘mostly indica’, ‘pure indica’ and ‘ruderalis hybrid’ is generally adopted by breeders and growers to distinguish the different biotypes. The current study investigated the variability in terpene profiles of Cannabis strains and explored the utility of monoterpenes in the distinction between ‘mostly sativa’ and ‘mostly indica’ biotypes.

Materials and methods

Several strains with Δ9-THC profile were obtained from breeders of private companies. Assignment of strains exclusively to ‘mostly sativa’ or ‘mostly indica’ biotypes was based on the genetic background declared by breeders of the strains. Assignment to ‘pure indica’ and ‘pure sativa’ biotypes was not used because of the uncertain information on these strains. Each strain consisted of a commercial pocket, generally of ten viable seeds. Preliminary evaluations on the declared genetic background were performed by growing these strains during the spring-summer term in a greenhouse at CRA-CIN (Rovigo). At the beginning of the flowering stage staminate plants were eliminated while pistillate plants were treated with silver thiosulfate solution to artificially induce the production of staminate inflorescences. Self-pollination of all the pistillate plants was performed by physically isolating plants from each other by individual white paper bags. Only 16 pistillate plants derived from 16 different strains were finally selected. 8 plants (ID: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12) were derived from ‘mostly sativa’ strains and the other 8 plants (ID: 2, 3, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17) were derived from ‘mostly indica’ strains.

Progenies of the 16 plants were grown in indoor conditions at CRA-CIN (Rovigo). In total 99 plants (3 to 7 plants for each strain) were grown under 600 W/m2 high pressure sodium lamps (Philips Son-T). Photoperiod was kept at 18 hours of light for the first 4 weeks of cultivation and then decreased to 12 hours of light until the harvest. Temperature and relative humidity of the air were respectively maintained at 25±3°C and 50-70%.
Plants were individually grown in 1.5-L pots in finely ground flakes of coconut fibre (CANNA B.V.) and they were daily ferti-irrigated, by using an automatic irrigation system, with a dose of nutrient solution depending on requirement. The nutrient solution used (EC=1.7) was obtained by mixing equal parts of Coco A and B (CANNA B.V.) with tap water, and then the pH level was adjusted to 5.5. Ferti-irrigation was interrupted 2 weeks before the harvest and pots were flushed with tap water adjusted to pH=5.5.

The harvest of early strains (‘mostly indica’) occurred after 105 days from sowing while the harvest of late strains (‘mostly sativa’) was deferred at 133 days. Fresh inflorescence tissues of plants were sampled during the harvest for analyses of terpenoids. The sample material (80 mg of fresh inflorescence tissues) was ground in liquid nitrogen, extracted in 4 ml of n-pentane and then 1 ml of the extract was transferred to GC vials. The terpene composition was analyzed by GC/FID. In total, 28 compounds were detected, 15 were fully identified while 13 remained unknown (unk). Terpenoids were identified by matching their retention times with those of pure compounds under the same conditions. Depending from their retention times, peaks were identified as following: α-pinene, unk1, unk2, camphene, β-pinene, sabinene, Δ-3-carene, α-phellandrene, β-myrcene, α-terpinene, limonene, 1.8 cineole, γ-terpinene, cis-β-ocimene, trans-β-ocimene, α-terpinolene, unk3, unk4, β-caryophyllene, unk5, unk6, unk7, unk8, unk9, unk10, unk11, unk12 and unk13. Terpenoids identified were mostly monoterpenes with the exception of one sesquiterpene, β-caryophyllene.

Relative content of each monoterpene was expressed as a percentage of total monoterpenes, while each sesquiterpene was calculated as a percentage of total mono terpenes plus sesquiterpenes. Data were not normally distributed Kolmogorov-Smirnov One-Sample Test and were analysed by the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA followed by the Mann-Whitney U Test for multiple comparisons. Differences were accepted as significant at the 5% level. Statistical analyses were performed by using SYSTAT 12.0 software (Systat Software Inc., USA).

Results and discussion

The relative content of terpenoids is strongly inherited while total yield per weight of tissue is more subjected to environmental factors. Expression of composition on a tissue basis (mg/g) is used for quality control and standardization of Cannabis cultivars, as well as for chemosystematic studies (Fischedick et al., 2010), but the relative content (%) of terpenoids is more often used for chemosystematic studies.

The average relative contents of dominant compounds detected in the aroma volatiles of all the strains were: β-myrcene (46.1±2.6%), α-pinene (14.0±1.5%), α-terpinolene (10.2±1.8%), limonene (7.3±1.3%), trans-β-ocimene (6.6±0.7%), β-pinene (6.1±0.4%), α-terpinene (3.6±1.0%), β-caryophyllene (1.2±0.2%), 1.8 cineole (1.1±0.2%), α-phellandrene (0.7±0.1%) and Δ-3-carene (0.6±0.1%). The average relative contents of camphene, unk1, cis-β-ocimene, unk5, unk8, unk7, unk13, sabinene, γ-terpinene, unk3, unk4, unk6, unk10, unk2, unk9, unk11 and unk12 were lower than 0.5%.

Results of Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA between different strains (d.f.=15, N=99) showed significant changes in relative contents of all the compounds: α-pinene (X2=71.6, P

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S. Casano, G. Grassi, V. Martini and M. Michelozzi (2011)Variations in terpene profiles of different strains of Cannabis sativa L. Acta Horticulturae 925:115-121 The psychotropic effects of Cannabis, primarily due to the main psychotropic cannabinoid, Δ9-THC (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), have been intensely studied as pure compounds for medicinal activity. The pharmaceutical