How To Build Your Own Cannabis Grow Room
So, you have decided to grow your own cannabis at home. Nice one! Growing your own cannabis not only guarantees a continuous supply of wonderful weed, it also leads to a greater appreciation of the herb and the sense of a job well done. It is well documented that time in the garden is as beneficial as meditating, increasing one’s sense of well-being and even helping combat anxiety and depression.
Growing cannabis at home means having somewhere dedicated to growing. To produce enough weed to last from harvest to harvest, a minimum of 1m² is recommended. This will accommodate a number of smaller plants or one or two well-trained, or even scrogged, larger plants. All this is up to you; the yields in the end are similar, it just depends on whether you want a lot of variety with smaller yields per plant, or less variety and larger yields per plant. It is entirely up to the individual.
The height of the grow room is dictated by available space and lights being used. A single square metre is easily covered by most styles of grow light. Less height is required when using fluorescents, as lights can be kept closer to plants throughout the grow, whereas HID lights need more distance to avoid light burn and excessive heat buildup. You might want to blast your babies with a 1000W HID, but without appropriate height, this just isn’t possible.
SELECTING A SPACE
Everyone can find an easily accessible spare square metre somewhere in their home or apartment. Spare rooms, attics, basements, cupboards, and walk-in robes can be used to set up a grow space. Discretion is a key factor; fan noise, light buzz, and odour control each need to be considered when selecting a space to set up a grow room. An oscillating fan attached to a shared partition wall, for example, will drive your neighbours crazy with the noise and sympathetic vibrations.
An entirely light-proof grow room is absolutely necessary. In the first instance, light leakage can be annoying because grow lights are extremely bright. Light leakage can keep you awake at night if your grow room is a bedroom cupboard or set up in a spare corner of any inhabited room. At worst, it will advertise that you are growing weed to your whole neighbourhood.
Secondly, light leakage into the grow room can adversely affect plant performance. Once plants have been flipped to the 12-12 day/night cycle to induce flowering, light leakage can confuse plants and lead to a lower yield, hermaphroditism, or even failed crops due to light stress. All growers keep a keen eye out for male plants, but missing a few well-hidden bananas on females can ruin a whole crop by sending it into seed production.
Once your grow space is set up, do a test by turning on the lights and inspecting for any light leakage. Any cracks or holes that let light out will certainly let light in. When and if discovered, patch the holes with light-proof tape available at hardware stores or with at least two layers of gaffer tape—gaffer tape is semi-translucent, even the black stuff, so just one layer won’t do the job.
Most electrical equipment kept in a grow room, such as dehumidifiers, have quite bright micro-LED lights, which can do the same plant damage as environmental light leakage. Place a piece of tape over any lights on these types of appliances to ensure nights are the darkest of dark. Outdoors, the subdued light of the full moon has beneficial effects on plant growth, but this effect is difficult to translate to an indoor grow.
As it matures into resinous, fat buds, good cannabis smells—it’s as simple as that. Some weed even overpoweringly reeks and can stink out a whole room, a whole house, or even a street. It is easy to become used to that luscious aroma when visiting your plants often, and become convinced that the smell isn’t going further than your grow room—but nothing is further from the truth. A well-sealed grow room prevents aromas from disturbing neighbours or your fellow inhabitants.
A well-sealed grow room also makes climate control easier to maintain. Temperature control and dehumidifying/humidifying air rely on a sealed environment without any drafts. A stable environment is very important for optimum plant performance. A well-sealed room also acts as a quarantine cell for your plants, preventing any bugs, vermin, or airborne pathogens from entering. A single mouse can do a lot of damage to cannabis in only one night, especially to young plants, as they are voracious for nutrient-dense cotyledons and young stalks.
It should be noted that an airtight grow room is a low-budget solution. Spending more to set up an air exchange system will benefit your weed substantially and will pay itself back in the long run. However, airtight grow rooms are the ideal environments for experimenting with CO₂ enrichment for added plant performance.
Healthy cannabis requires moving air. Any grow room will require at least one oscillating fan to ensure air is continually in circulation. Moving air has a number of benefits for the cannabis plant.
At a minimum, moving air should ruffle all the leaves on a plant to ensure fresh air is available to the leaf stomata. In still environments, stale air can build up on the undersides of leaves around the stomata and hinder efficient gas exchange. This has the undesirable effect of inhibiting plant growth; stems will become weak, leaves will droop, and plant performance will be poor.
Moving air strengthens plants considerably; stems and stalks become thicker and more robust, and end yields will be higher.
Moving air also helps with the wet-dry cycle of the growing medium by supporting evaporation. Moreover, it prevents pathogens caused by moisture buildup on leaves as they transpire. Moulds like nothing more than a moist, warm environment.
With a higher budget, introducing an air exchange system stimulates better growth. Air exchange requires an inlet for fresh air and an exhaust for depleted air. With a higher budget still, incorporating a carbon filter into the exhaust system will keep the stink factor to a minimum.
Air inlets are passive and can take a number of forms; however, they are always situated in the lower part of the grow room, either in the floor if the floor is raised, or in a wall. The main consideration is light control when putting perforations into a grow room. A simple slot, vent, or series of holes will provide ample air intake, but can be indiscreet with light. Using a piece of ducting with a bend in it, or configuring a double wall arrangement, stops light escape. The easiest thing to remember is that light can’t go around corners, so introducing an arrangement with a bend of some kind keeps your grow discreet. Also, provide some kind of vermin barrier to dissuade any critters that want to get in and feed on your precious weed.
An air inlet means there will also be an air outlet or exhaust system, ideally with a carbon filter attached. Exhaust systems remove depleted air and heat from the grow room and draw fresh air in. Where possible, it is desirable to exhaust to the outdoors to prevent heat buildup in closed spaces, or to recirculate the same air back into the system. This can often be a challenge, but ducting is your friend when solving air distribution problems.
The capacity of an exhaust fan is dictated by the volume of the grow room. Length × width × height will give the volume of the grow room, and the manufacturer will recommend what fan will be right for the job. It is recommended to go up a size to ensure proper air exchange, and to accommodate any potential increase in the scale of your grow.
Cannabis thrives when the climate is controlled in regard to humidity and temperature, with certain parameters ideal for vegetation and other parameters ideal for bloom.
Humidity can be easily controlled with a dehumidifier; these are also available as double-action units that will add or subtract humidity as necessary. During vegetation, a humid and warm environment increases the rate of growth, while lower humidity and temperatures increase bud development.
Temperatures can be controlled with small, portable, reverse cycle AC units. Many humidity-modifying units and heaters come with built-in thermostats and hygrometers, so they switch on and off as the environment demands. Just set them, and rest assured your weed is booming at every stage; automating the whole thing makes growing life a lot easier.
SAFETY AND FIRE PREVENTION
Although most growers make it to harvest time without any mishaps, numerous horror stories document how bad things can get when an accident happens.
Although many cannabis growers like to keep their operation minimal, others like to use as many helpful gadgets as possible. But, even a small number of electronics in the grow space runs the risk of fire.
Water remains one of the biggest risks in the grow room when it comes to electronics. Water can interrupt an electrical current, potentially leading to a fire or electrocution. Try as hard as possible to keep electronics elevated above the ground in case of any water leaks.
Place a fan in your grow room to regulate temperature. Although this means even more electronics floating about, a fan will create a cool air current and help to prevent devices from overheating.
Using a ground fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) will help to stop electrical leaks when they arise. This piece of kit detects when electricity flows where it shouldn’t—in a pool of water or a human body— and breaks the circuit.
Keep your grow room as tidy as possible. Create a dedicated space for each piece of equipment, and keep wires running neatly using plastic zip ties. If you notice any damaged or exposed wires, repair them immediately.
Clear away all tools after using them to prevent any trip hazards. Keep your pruning shears, watering cans, and spray bottles packed away in a toolbox when not in use. Not only can tripping result in injury, but you might also land on your plants and cause some serious damage.
Although rare, you should be entirely prepared for a fire to break out. Grow room fires can destroy your property, put your life at risk, and also expose your herbal hobby to the authorities. Keep a fire extinguisher close by at all times in case your setup goes up in flames.
Instal a fire alarm in your grow room to alert you if a fire breaks out. Purchase a handheld fire extinguisher and keep it at the entrance to your grow room or tent. Purchase a model that contains dry chemical powder or CO₂ suitable to tackle electrical fires. Alternatively, purchase an extinguisher ball and position it above your growing space. Upon exposure to excess heat, these devices explode and release fire-retardant powder.
Now that you have selected a space that satisfies the demands for a healthy and discreet grow, it’s time to actually build your grow room. There are a number of solutions to create a grow room at home on a budget. This method uses a number of plastic-lined wooden frames to form the walls, base, ceiling, and door. When including a ceiling, supports for the grow lights will need to be incorporated. When dealing with existing walls and ceilings, BE ABSOLUTELY CERTAIN OF THE LOCATION OF ELECTRICAL WIRING. Also, tenants will need to consider the future repair of any surfaces that might be affected when building their grow room.
What you will need:
• A saw
• A stapler that can staple to wood
• Doubled-sided plastic sheet: one side black, the other side white or reflective like Mylar
• 4 small hinges
• A drill with a drill bit and a screwdriver bit
• 26 angle plates
• Plastic corner protectors (optional)
• Timber to suit: 4x4cm (or close enough) pine or similar softwood is easy to handle, strong enough, and cheap; your local hardware shop will certainly have this available in a variety of lengths
1. To create the top and bottom of your frame, you will require 4x 1.0m + 5x 92cm laths of wood.
– To create the sides of your frame, you will need 7x 192cm laths.
– To create the door, you will need 2x 1.0m laths + 2x 192cm laths.
2. For the top: To affix the laths, drill holes 2cm from each end, and one in the middle for the spax. Do the same to the bottom. For the door: Drill holes 2cm from each end in the 1m laths. Spax together with the vertical beams.
3. Now that you have created the bottom frame, take one of the 192cm laths, place it in one corner, and affix it with two angle plates. Repeat in each corner.
4. Now that all 4 are in place, place the top and affix all vertical laths to it with angle plates.
5. Measure out the middle between the vertical laths and affix your stabilising beams with 2 angle plates (3 for where they meet the supportive beam of the top frame).
6. Using scissors, cut a piece of plastic/Mylar that will overlap every edge of each frame. Staple the plastic into place on the overlapping edge using plastic corner protectors.
7. Locate the door and screw the 4 hinges into place.
8. Voila, your grow room is now ready to be fitted out.
For a start, we need to ensure that the space is made completely light-proof. In order to bloom to its peak the cannabis plant needs 12 hours of undisturbed night and 12 hours light.
Commercial Grow Room Design Plans | How To’s
The cornerstone to creating any commercial grow facility, such as those needed in cannabis cultivation, requires a well-thought-out layout and optimum mechanical systems. As an example, with an indoor cultivation facility design the mistake of under-sizing the environmental controls are an all too common occurrence. The cultivation facility design must feature an HVAC system with redundancy and a backup power source. In addition, they should be cleanable outside of the grow rooms and be easy to repair. The units remove massive amounts of moisture caused by the abundant cannabis plant growth, so it is imperative that they have properly sized units to meet the needs of the grow room’s space.
Within the confines of the indoor grow facility, air circulation keeps the plant’s canopy slightly swaying because of the artificial breeze. The upper flowers in a vertical grow are then prevented from getting excessively hot. Clearly, the environmental controls are of paramount importance or cannabis crop loss can occur and pests from clones can easily enter the facility if things are not kept at consistent levels. Engineering and installation are one of the biggest investments (if not the biggest) of any commercial grow room design plan. You cannot cut corners, or the financial losses quickly become insurmountable.
What’s Required for a Grow Facility Design?
A craft grower is a facility that is licensed by the Department of Agriculture to cultivate, dry, cure, and package hemp or marijuana. They each have their own commercial marijuana grow room design plans but for licensing as a craft grow, they must contain at least 5,000 square feet of canopy space for the cannabis plants during the flowering stage of their life cycle. The Department of Agriculture can authorize either an increase or decrease of space for the flowering cultivation stage which occurs in increments of 3,000 square feet depending on the market need, the craft grow house design capacity, and the history of the licensee’s compliance or noncompliant issues. The maximum set forth is 14,000 square feet for cultivation when the plants enter their flowering stage. However, the commercial grow room design plan laid forth by the USDA encompasses all the growth stages of the cannabis plant which drives home the importance of them being secured and enclosed in an indoor cultivation facility design.
The Typical Craft Grow Facility — Room Division
Standard commercial grow room design plans does vary depending on your crop and your cultivation practices. Will you be using hydroponics or standard soil medium? Typically, indoor cannabis cultivation has at least eight spaces or more flower rooms with a standard measurement of 30 feet across and between 50 to 100 feet long. Dividing the indoor grow facilities into individual rooms allows each one to become self-contained with their own temperature controls. Needed pest treatment practices become easier. Also, the workflow is reduced to doable and digestible chunks. The cultivation facility design that consists of various rooms affords various planting and harvest times. The rooms are also easily quarantined from the rest of the facility to control any pest or mold outbreak so only a small percentage of the crop is damaged or destroyed and the entire grow operation does not perish. A standard marijuana grow facility design with room division allows you to test the efficiency of Co2 injection, factor in various types of lighting, and monitor the nutrient regime that occurs. Another room can also house the same cultivars but have them grown under different variables, so you obtain reliable data and make any needed protocol changes.
Engineering the Warehouse Grow Room Design
Any engineer used to create a craft grow facility should have experience with indoor plant cultivation facilities. The design of the commercial grow room will feature the necessary environmental controls, plumbing, and electrical requirements, backup power system, and typically HVAC redundancy. To achieve all of this, most will hire various engineering firms that specialize in the key areas to make the commercial grow room a success.
HVAC of the Cannabis Grow Facility Design
The crucial component of any commercial grow op setup remains the HVAC systems used. The HVAC company will gather the needed information from the cultivation consultant and engineer so they can focus on the necessary electrical use, Co2 requirements, air circulation, purification, and moisture quantity that is forecast to be generated at the site. They will then work to create the ideal environmental settings needed for all the various stages of the marijuana or hemp growth cycles to effectively control the conditions of the indoor grow facility.
At Mintropy, our engineers will consider the following for your craft grow facility design:
- Emergency Co2 evacuation
- Carbon filtration utilization factoring in the exhaust path needed to account for the necessary odor control needed at the grow facility
- Utilize a hydrogen peroxide filtration system in the return air pathways to further reduce airborne pathogens
- Include latent load in cooling load calculation to maintain the craft grow facility’s crucial environmental balance
- Factor in the wastewater being released into the sanitary system and its dilution
- Positively pressurize each grow room while keeping the entire space under negative pressure
- Maintain dialogue every step of the way with engineers and others in jurisdiction authority
The Commercial Cannabis Craft Grow Industry
The commercial cannabis industry is constantly changing and evolving. Without a doubt, the one crucial component of any commercial grow op setup remains the HVAC system. Standard commercial HVAC companies often lack the experience needed to provide the correct environmental conditions required by a craft grow facility.
In the past, 1,000 tons of refrigeration capacity was needed for 80,000 to 10,000 square foot facilities such as a data center, hospital, or school. A grow room requires similar, but they are dramatically different. A grow room has a much higher latent load (moisture/dehumidification load). The humidity in the grow space must undergo more cooling to effectively condense the humidity off the cooling coil. A much colder chilled water temperature is needed. When growing cannabis, the lights-out mode means that growers must dry the air and then reheat it, so the grow room does not start to over-cool. The reheat can use free energy obtained from the dehumidification process when the right HVAC system is used. Having an experienced company, such as Mintropy, handle such key specifics is necessary for the success of any commercial cannabis grow facility.
Importance of Picking an Experienced Craft Grow HVAC Company
As you can see, it is important to pick an experienced HVAC engineering company such as Mintropy who has the needed craft grow facility experience to achieve optimum success when creating a design layout and installing the needed mechanical systems. You’ll want someone who can explain your HVAC options, costs, limitations, and advantages of the various systems for your specific commercial craft grow room requirements. Also, you’ll want to look at modular, scalable, and redundancy HVAC control approaches for your craft facility so you know and understand your options.
If you have any questions, please contact us today.
Creating a commercial grow facility, such as those needed in cannabis cultivation, requires engineering experience & optimum systems.